Happy New Year! I hope you are all recovering from a fun but
relaxing holiday season. I know I'm glad to be getting back into
Today I thought I'd talk about ice damming and heating coils for
your gutters. We're supposed to get a doozy of a storm starting
tonight. Heavy snow and cold temperatures are sure to bring us some
lovely (but dangerous) icicles throughout the city.
So here's what causes ice damming - it's very
simple, but can be very problematic.
- It snows (a lot lately) here in Chicago! I know - you just can't
believe how helpful this info is!
- After it snows, it often stays really really cold (again, so
helpful, I know)
- Most of us are lucky enough to live in well heated homes
- Many of us are not lucky enough to have well insulated
- If there's a lack of insulation (and/or ventilation) between the
ceilings and the roof, then heat rises from the home and melts the
snow on the roof.
- As the melting snow runs towards the gutters it re-freezes where
there is no more heat loss from inside the home - usually at the
soffit overhang, over the back porches or at the gutters.
- As the cycle repeats itself ice dams build up at the gutters and
the problems begin...
Here's what a roof should look like in the winter. The roof is
covered with snow, no icicles...lovely!
Here's what a roof shouldn't look like
in winter. Melted snow and icicles...not so lovely!
These photos were taken on the same
day in the same neighborhood last year. Sadly, I get great
enjoyment out of driving around during the winter and looking at
people's roofs and thinking "ah, good insulation, bad insulation".
Wow - and I wonder why I'm single! :-)
For you analytical types, here is a drawing. This shows a
pitched roof but it's the same for flat roofs. The difference is
that the ice will start to form on the entire back porch roof
instead of just at the gutters.
Here are some of the problems
associated with ice damming:
- Dangerous icicles fall and mess up your hair
- Dripping icicles make sidewalks below like the 'slip-n-slides'
we loved as kids but loath as adults
- Icicles are heavy - they bend, twist and even break
- Water starts to lift up roofing materials and begins to leak
into the home
- Once the water is in the home all sorts of fun begins, including
but not limited to, ruined attic insulation, mold growth on roof
sheathing and rafters, leaking into living areas, mold growth in
living areas, soffit wood rot etc.
So hopefully you can see what kind of
trouble those beautiful but nasty icicles can get you into. I can't
even begin to tell you how many attic hatches I've opened up over
the years and found mold growth on the roof sheathing that was
clearly caused by ice damming. Sadly, the home owners had no idea.
Trust me; it's a tough day when your buyer's home inspector breaks
the news of an attic full of mold.
So, let's talk about
Unfinished Attics and General Roofing Info:
(I know there are several new insulation technologies
available but I'm just going to address the traditional method here
- The first thing to remember is that attics should be the SAME
temperature as the outdoors. If it is too warm in the attic during
the winter then ice damming will occur.
- An attic will be appropriately cold if it is properly vented and
- Venting can be done in many ways - ridge and soffit vents, roof
and soffit vents, gable vents etc. There just has to be good air
flow in the attic.
- Insulation, more often than not, seems to be where the problems
begin. In Chicagoland an insulation value of R-38 is the
recommended level! Rarely do I see this level achieved. Insulation
should be in the attic floor as opposed to between the rafters
(wherever possible). We'll talk about insulating between rafters on
another day. Old insulation compresses and becomes useless.
- Install a membrane between the roofing shingles and the
sub-roof that runs at least 3 feet up the roof from the gutter.
This will prevent moisture from leaking inside the home/attic if
ice damming does occur.
- Make sure that gutters are properly sized and pitched. Keep
gutters free of debris. Make sure that downspouts are not blocked
or leaking. Make sure there is at least 1 downspout for every 30
feet of gutter.
If an attic is well vented and
well insulated, ice damming should not be an issue.
Vaulted Ceilings/Finished Attics/Inaccessible Attics/Flat
These are harder to insulate and ventilate - unless you have
nothing better to do than rip out your ceilings!
So, here's a good alternative
(although not as environmentally friendly as adding insulation).
This solution can also be used in homes with attics as well if for
whatever reason it is not preferable to insulate and ventilate.
Electric Gutter Heating
Electric heating coils or heating pads can be added where
the ice damming is occurring. These systems can be very effective
and safe if properly installed. The coils keep the melting snow
from re-freezing at the gutters and keep the gutters and downspouts
clear of ice.
But as with most things, it's all
about the installation. If these systems are not properly installed
they can be fire hazards. So ice damming is bad, but burning down
your house, is waaaay worse!
Here's what you should
- Hire a professional to do the installation - too many homeowners
have fallen off roofs, damaged their roofs and started fires doing
this themselves! It's just NOT worth it. BTW - the fire at Holy
Name Cathedral last winter was caused by a roof heating
- My recommendation for a good installer in the area is
Nelson Roofing - see the resources page.
- The systems should NEVER be installed using extension cords. An
electrical box with a GFI protected outlet needs to be installed at
the gutter area. The wiring needs to run in solid metal conduit
directly from the main electrical panel.
- The roof can easily be damaged if the coils are not attached
properly. Leaky roofs aren't much fun either.
- Some systems have to be turned on by the home owner and some
have sensors. Obviously the automatic systems are more expensive,
but if you forget to turn on the coils before it snows, it's too
late. Also, if you forget to turn them off, they can burn
- Here's a website that shows how these systems should be
installed. Check it out - it's not as simple as it may seem. Hire a
Overall, the main point...if you have
icicles forming on your home...don't ignore them. Prevention is
always your best option!
Hope this was helpful and thanks for